Borderline Personality Disorder: Understanding Its Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness characterized by intense emotional experiences, impulsive behavior, and unstable relationships. People with BPD often struggle with self-identity, mood swings, and difficulties regulating their emotions. This article will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options available for people with BPD.

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental illness that affects how a person feels, thinks, and behaves. People with BPD have intense emotions that are difficult to regulate, leading to impulsive behaviors and unstable relationships. BPD is a complex mental illness that can be challenging to diagnose and treat.

Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder

The exact causes of BPD are unknown, but research suggests that a combination of biological and environmental factors may contribute to its development.

Biological Factors

Genetics may play a role in the development of BPD. Studies have shown that people with a family history of BPD or other mental illnesses are more likely to develop BPD themselves. Neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain may also contribute to BPD.

Environmental Factors

Childhood trauma and abuse are common experiences among people with BPD. Research suggests that childhood abuse, neglect, and other forms of trauma can increase the risk of developing BPD. Other environmental factors that may contribute to BPD include social isolation, unstable family relationships, and a lack of emotional support.

Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder

BPD can cause a range of emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms. The symptoms of BPD can be challenging to manage and can interfere with a person’s ability to function in daily life.

Emotional Symptoms

People with BPD may experience intense emotions that are difficult to regulate. These emotions can include:

  • Fear of abandonment or rejection
  • Extreme mood swings
  • Intense anger or irritability
  • Feelings of emptiness or boredom
  • Difficulty with self-identity

Behavioral Symptoms

BPD can cause impulsive behavior, which can lead to difficulty in relationships and other negative consequences. Some common behavioral symptoms of BPD include:

  • Reckless behavior, such as substance abuse, gambling, or reckless driving
  • Self-harm or suicidal behavior
  • Impulsive spending or other financial behaviors
  • Relationship difficulties, including intense idealization and devaluation of others

Physical Symptoms

BPD can also cause physical symptoms, such as headaches, gastrointestinal problems, and chronic pain. These physical symptoms may be related to the stress and anxiety that people with BPD often experience.

Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder

Diagnosing BPD can be challenging, as the symptoms of BPD can overlap with other mental illnesses. A mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, can diagnose BPD through a comprehensive evaluation that includes:

  • A medical history and physical exam
  • A psychiatric evaluation, including a review of symptoms
  • Psychological testing to assess personality traits and emotional functioning

Treatment Options for Borderline Personality Disorder

Treatment for BPD often involves a combination of therapy and medication. There is no cure for BPD, but with the right treatment, people with BPD can manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.


Psychotherapy is the most effective treatment for BPD. Different types of therapy may be used, depending on the individual’s needs and preferences. Some common types of therapy used for BPD include:

  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): A form of therapy that helps people with BPD learn skills to manage their emotions, improve their relationships, and reduce self-destructive behavior.
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): A type of therapy that focuses on changing negative thought patterns and behaviors.
  • Schema Therapy: A type of therapy that helps people with BPD identify and change negative patterns of behavior that were learned in childhood.


Medications may be used to treat specific symptoms of BPD, such as depression, anxiety, and impulsivity. Some common medications used for BPD include:

  • Antidepressants: Used to treat symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  • Mood Stabilizers: Used to reduce mood swings and impulsivity.
  • Antipsychotics: Used to treat symptoms of paranoia or psychosis.


In severe cases of BPD, hospitalization may be necessary. Hospitalization can provide a safe and structured environment where a person with BPD can receive intensive therapy and medication management.

Complementary Therapies

Complementary therapies, such as yoga, meditation, and acupuncture, may also be helpful in managing the symptoms of BPD. These therapies can help reduce stress and promote relaxation, which can be beneficial for people with BPD.

Coping Strategies for Borderline Personality Disorder

In addition to formal treatment, there are several coping strategies that can help people with BPD manage their symptoms. Some common coping strategies include:

  • Mindfulness practices, such as meditation and deep breathing exercises.
  • Self-care activities, such as exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep.
  • Building a support network of friends and family who can provide emotional support.
  • Keeping a journal to track emotions and identify triggers.


Borderline Personality Disorder is a serious mental illness that can have a significant impact on a person’s life. However, with the right treatment and support, people with BPD can manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives. It is important for people with BPD to seek help from a mental health professional and to build a support network of family and friends who can provide emotional support. By working together, people with BPD can overcome the challenges of their illness and live full, meaningful lives.

FAQs about Borderline Personality Disorder

Can BPD be cured?

No, there is no cure for BPD. However, with the right treatment, people with BPD can manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

What is the prognosis for BPD?

The prognosis for BPD varies depending on the individual and the severity of their symptoms. With treatment, many people with BPD are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Is BPD more common in women or men?

BPD is more common in women than in men.

Can people with BPD have healthy relationships?

Yes, people with BPD can have healthy relationships with the right treatment and support.

Is it possible to have BPD and another mental illness?

Yes, it is common for people with BPD to have co-occurring mental illnesses, such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.).
  2. National Institute of Mental Health. (2021, February). Borderline Personality Disorder.
  3. Gunderson, J. G., & Links, P. S. (2008). Borderline personality disorder: A clinical guide (2nd ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.
  4. Linehan, M. M. (2015). DBT skills training manual (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.
  5. Paris, J. (2020). The treatment of borderline personality disorder: Implications of research on diagnosis, etiology, and outcome. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 16, 379-406.

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